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Hair is composed of 3 Principle Layers

The Medulla

  • Composed of round cells 2 or 5 rows across
  • Sometimes called the pith or marrow of the hair
  • Thick or coarse hair usually contains a Medulla
  • Fine and naturally blonde hair generally lacks a Medulla
  • The purpose of the Medulla has not been determined

The Cortex

  • Composed of a fibrous protein core
  • The cells are elongated and tightly bound together
  • Contains Melanin pigment which is responsible for
  • Strength, Elasticity and Tenacity
  • Chemical changes take place in the Cortex when
  • Colouring, Perming, Relaxing or Straightening

The Cuticle

  • The outermost layer of the hair
  • Composed of scale like single layer cells
  • The cuticle protect the Cortex and Medulla
  • Products with a High PH cause the cuticle layer to swell allowing liquids into the Cortex
  • Products with a Low PH cause the cuticle to shrink and harden


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Principle Layers of Hair



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Facts about Hair Loss

At Age 25 – 25% of men have lost some hair

At Age 50 – 50% of men have lost 50% of their hair


  • Hair follicles are genetically pre programmed revert from producing terminal hair to vellus hair
  • Male hormones (androgens), androgenetic alopecia Eunuchs who served the Harems of the east in days gone by never went bald!

Many women suffer from Androgenetic Alopecia

  • Usually starts 10 years later in women than men
  • Hair loss is distributed differently is less dramatic
  • Hair line remains intact in Women
  • Little or no hair loss at the temples.


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Hair Loss Men

Hair Loss Women



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Hamiltion Hair Loss Pattern – Male

Hamilton Hair Loss Pattern Male


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Ludwig Hair Loss Pattern – Female

Ludwig Hair Loss Pattern Female


Facts about Female Pattern Hair Loss

  • Most common type is Androgenetic Alopecia, also known as Female Pattern Baldness
  • Hair thins predominately over top and sides of the head
  • Affects 1 in 3 Women
  • Very common after the menopause, but can begin in puberty
  • Normal hair loss 100 – 125 hairs per day
  • Abnormal / True hair loss exceeds 125 per day not re-grown
  • Hair loss can come from either side of the family.

Facts about Hair Loss

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Anagen Effluvium

  • Generally due to internally adminstered medications
  • Chemotherapy attacks the growing hair follicle

Teolgen Effluvium

  • Due to an increased number of follicles entering the resting phase
  • Most common causes:
    • Physical Stress, Surgery, Anemia, Weight Change
    • Emotional Stress, Mental illness, change in relationships
    • Thyroid abnormalities
    • Medication, blood pressure, steroids, thyroxin
    • Hormonal causes, contraceptives, pregnancy
  • When the underlying cause is reversed usually returns to normal growth
  • 3 month delay between event and onset of hair loss
  • Another 3 months delay prior to return of noticeable re-growth
  • In total can last for 6 months


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  • Any group of hormones that primarily influence the growth and development of the male productive system
  • Produced primarily from the Adrenal Gland and Ovaries
  • Predominant, most active androgen is testosterone
  • Women produce about one twelfth as much androgen as men
  • Androgens are essential to production of estrogen
  • Testosterone by product is DHT Dihydrotestostersone
  • AGA is lined to Iron Deficiency
  • Iron levels are low, Adrenals work more to compensate
  • Adrenals compensate by producing Testosterone – DHT

Alopecia Areata (AA)

  • Used to describe hair loss anywhere on the body

 Alopecia Totalis (AT)

  • Total loss of hair on the scalp


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Alopecia Universalis (AU)

  • Total loss of all body hair

Alopecia Barbae

  • Loss of facial hair (male) beard area

Alopecia Mucinosa

  • A type of alopecia that results in scaly patches

Androgenetic Alopecia (AGA)

  • Known as male pattern baldness hair thins to an almost transparent state
  • Affects men and women and is thought to be hereditary

 Traction Alopecia

  • Caused by excessive traction or pulling on the hair shaft.
  • Hair loss depends on the way the hair is pulled
  • Prolonged tension or pulling can stop new follicles developing
  • Can lead to permanent hair loss

Scarring Alopecia

  • A form of alopecia that leaves scaring on the area of hair loss